«A thesis submitted to the Department of Political Science and International Studies of the University of Birmingham for the degree of Doctor of ...»
This one-sidedness of the conceptualisation of EU borders is most evident in the ways a number of studies have argued in favour of the construction/ diminished salience of borders that is currently taking place at the external edges of the EU. If during the first decades of European integration the decreasing visibility of borders was directed primarily towards the inside (in the EC itself with the adoption and implementation of the various common policies) at the end of the twentieth century the question of how does or should the EU interact with the rest of the world gained ever increasing importance. Thus, recent debates on borders in EU Studies have been concerned predominantly with this issue as the studies reviewed below show.
One of the prominent contributions to the debate is an article by Christiansen, Petito and Tonra that coined the idea that the borders of the EU are “fuzzy”. According to them, this is a result of the EU's policy of exporting its policies beyond its member states, such as the gradual extension of its Single Market Programme to Central and Eastern Europe. Hence, the article argues that in the current circumstances there is value in moving away from the inside/ outside dichotomy and studying the relations of the EU with its neighbours through the category of “near abroad”. Thus, the article maintains that the boundaries of the polity are not clearly defined. 23 Denalty and Rumford's24 and Lavenex's25 studies on the ENP contribute to the same debate. According to the former 22 Michael Smith, „The European Union and a Changing Europe: Establishing the Boundaries of Order‟, Journal of Common Market Studies, 34: 1 (1996), pp. 5-28 23 Thomas Christiansen, Fabio Petito, Ben Tonra, „Fuzzy Politics around Fuzzy Borders: the European Union's 'Near Abroad‟‟, Cooperation and Conflict, 35: 4 (2000), pp. 389-415 24 Gerard Delanty, Chris Rumford, Rethinking Europe. Social Theory and the Implications of Europeanization (London: Routledge, 2005) 25
Sandra Lavenex, „EU External Governance in 'Wider Europe‟‟, Journal of European Public Policy, 11:
4 (2004), pp. 680-700 25 study this policy represents a blurring of the EU's external border. 26 The concept through which the authors propose to think about the European territory is borderlands.
For them this term captures the changed nature of the EU‟s borders, which must be seen less in territorial terms as firmly delineated and fixed and more in terms of new spaces.
Thus, borderlands contain core and periphery, members and non-members, global and local, networks and discontinuities. 27 Lavenex views the EU's neighbourhood policies as: "... a form of external governance which consists in the (selective) extension of the EU's norms, rules and policies, i.e. its legal boundary, while precluding the opening of its institutional boundary, i.e. membership."28 All these studies present analysis of a particular phenomenon – the fact that the EU is gradually expanding its governance beyond the circle of its member states, which creates ambiguity about the various Union borders.
Another important area of research, which provides information about the decreasing salience of the external EU borders are the contributions concerned with different aspects of Europeaness and European identity in the context of Eastern Enlargement. Typically these studies explore the issue of what constitutes “European values”29 and which of the former Communist countries can be regarded as conforming to them. For example, Mungiu-Pippidi states that: "The borders of Europe might then be traced on the basis of such "values"” 30 and that the eastern border of the EU (prior to the May 2004 enlargement) “… is not a separator between two identities- the European identity is actually stronger east of the line.” 31 In a similar vein, a study by Pavlovaite explores the dominant discourse on “Europe” in Lithuania from the standpoint that in post-Cold War Lithuania the preoccupation with belonging to Europe is mainly expressed through a desire to become a member of the EU. 32 This discourse was typical for the other post-Communists countries that joined the EU in 2004 and 2007 and 26 Gerard Delanty, Chris Rumford, Rethinking Europe. Social Theory and the Implications of Europeanization (London: Routledge, 2005), pp. 126-127 27 Ibid., pp. 133-134 28
Sandra Lavenex, „EU External Governance in 'Wider Europe‟‟, Journal of European Public Policy, 11:
4 (2004), pp. 680-700, p. 694 29 An example of a study focused on outlining European values is Ulrich Beck, „Understanding the Real Europe‟, Dissent, Summer, 2003, pp. 32-38 30 Alina Mungiu-Pippidi, „Beyond the New Borders‟, Journal of Democracy, 15: 1 (2004), pp. 48-62, p.
54 31 Ibid., p. 49 32 Inga Pavlovaite, „Being European by Joining Europe: Accession and Identity Politics in Lithuania‟, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 16: 2 (2003), pp. 239-255, p. 239 26 indeed one of the most contentious issues in Turkey‟s membership application is its genuine adherence to European values. Such studies can be regarded as contributing towards the decreased importance of identity borders between the EU and its neighbours because they demonstrate the shared values across formal boundaries, which potentially can lead to blurring the distinction between the EU‟s inside and outside. 33 In distinction to this position, the second type of arguments in studies on the borders of the EU focuses on various aspects of the emergence of new dividing lines.
Probably the area where this is most apparent are the various policies related to the implementation of the Schengen provisions. As Grabbe states: “The idea behind softening borders in the Schnegen zone is that internal frontiers become soft, while external ones are hard, effectively creating a larger zone of free movement, but one with sharper edges … so entry to the area is strictly controlled.” 34 As a result, there is a growing body of literature, whose main contribution in respect to my research is in providing an account of which elements of the Schengen-related policies lead to the construction of EU‟s borders. Some of this research is focused on the measures for and the effects of the increased control of the external borders of the EU and the ways the EU is consolidating its policies in areas such as immigration and asylum, the fight against organised crime and international terrorism, or other measures aimed at promoting the establishment of an area of freedom, security and justice on the territory of the EU. For example Wouters and Naert, 35 as well as Monar36 concentrate on the 33 Indeed such an outcome is the ultimate goal of the ENP. Therefore, although most of the countries on which this type of studies would have been focused are at present already members of the EU, discourses related to the adherence to the European values by diminishing the differences between various groups of people can lead to easier crossing of borders. At the same time, however, it should be noted that because as I argue, the decreased salience of borders always occurs simultaneously with the erections of borders elsewhere, the studies on Europeaness and European identity are dependent on the articulation of an “Other”. In the case of the former Communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe very often this “Other” has been Russia. In that respect this brand of studies can also be regarded as erecting borders (between the former Communist countries and Russia). Nevertheless, as far as the ways in which these studies configure the external borders of the EU is concerned, they promote the view that there is not a significant difference of the value systems of the countries from the two sides of the EU external borders.
Therefore, I have classified these studies as contributing towards the diminished visibility of identity borders between the EU and it‟s immediate neighbours.
34 Heather Grabbe, „The Sharp Edges of Europe: Extending Schengen Eastwards‟, International Affairs, 76: 3 (2000), pp. 519-536, p. 527. A similar conclusion on the effects of the integration in the areas of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) is reached by Jörg Monar in „Justice and Home Affairs in a Wider Europe: the Dynamics of Inclusion and Exclusion‟, ESRC „One Europe or Several?‟ Program, Working Paper 07/00, available at http://www.one-europe.ac.uk/pdf/monarW7.PDF, accessed on 3.11.2007 35 Jan Wouters, Frederik Naert, „The European Union and “September 11”‟, available at http://www.law.kulauven.ac.be/lir/eng/wp/WP40ed2e.pdf, accessed on 20.09.2004 27 legal provisions adopted by the European Union in various aspects of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA). Another area on which the studies of territorial borders of the EU are focused is the Eastern Enlargement of the Union and the migration of the labour force. 37 Kostakoupolou has examined the effects of communitarisation of the JHA pillar. Her conclusion is that it gives the member states the opportunity to reinforce the restrictive and law-enforcement approaches towards migration as well as allowing them to impose their security agenda beyond the limits of the EU. 38 In a similar vein Huysmans states that: “The Third Pillar on Justice and Home Affairs, the Schengen Agreements, and the Dublin Convention most vividly indicate that the European integration process is implicated in the development of a restrictive migration policy and the social construction of migration into a security question.”39 These are crucial findings that point to the construction of new external borders as a result of European integration.
The securitisation of particular issues on the EU‟s agenda is also related to questions of the construction of identity borders. This is a result of the fact that: “… identity politics play a crucial role in both defining the boundaries of any community, and in providing the community with an inner sense of cohesion.” 40 Ultimately these are achieved through a process of differentiation, which is pertinent especially to those that are “liminal” to the community because it helps to generate
principles upon which the community or polity is based. 41 Such a process is also referred to as “Othering”. It leads to the emergence of borders because if someone is identified as “the Other” cooperating with and trusting him/ her becomes much more problematic and difficult to achieve. Some studies have examined various aspects of this process in European politics. For example, Neumann42 has explored how the Eastern “Other” has 36 Jörg Monar, „Justice and Home Affairs‟, Journal of Common Market Studies, 1: 42 (2004), pp. 117See for example Margit Kraus, Robert Schwager, „EU Enlargement and Immigration‟, Journal of Common Market Studies, 2: 41 (2003), pp.165-181. The issues of migration and the impact of the Eastern Enlargement on the European Social Model will be examined in greater detail in Chapters Four and Five.
38 Theodora Kostakoupolou, „The „Protective Union‟: Change and Continuity in Migration Law and Policy in Post-Amsterdam Europe‟, Journal of Common Market Studies, 38: 3 (2000), pp. 497-518 39 Jef Huysmans, „The European Union and the Securitization of Migration‟, Journal of Common Market Studies, 38: 5 (2000), pp. 751-777, p. 751 40 Cited in Jacinta O'Hagan, Conceptualizing the West in International Relations – from Spengler to Said (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2002), p. 40 41 Ibid., pp. 47-50 42
Iver Neumann, Uses of the Other – "the East" in European Identity Formation (Manchester:
Manchester University Press, 1999)
Thus, the existing research on EU borders shows that as a result of the process of integration, member states‟ borders have been transformed in a variety of important ways. Furthermore, the literature on this issue provides useful ways of conceptualising borders that will inform the analysis in the following chapters. Two of the most important of the current transformations are the decreased salience of internal EU borders and the emergence of the Union‟s external borders. These trends, however, pose a new set of theoretical questions, which are paramount to this study: firstly, what is the nature of the “internal EU borders” and their relationship to the national borders of the member states. Secondly, the question of national borders becoming EU borders.
In recent years a number of studies have contributed to the issue of the emerging EU external borders, thus elucidating the issue of national borders becoming EU 43 Piotr Sztompka, From East Europeans to Europeans: Shifting Identities and Boundaries in the New Europe, available at http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=cache:n3S5ojX48J:www.nias.knaw.nl/Ortelius2004.pdf+from+East+Euroepans+to+Europeans+%2B+Sztompka, accessed 13.02.2006 44 Pinar Bilgin, „A Return to „Civilisational Geopolitics‟ in the Mediterranean? Changing Geopolitical Images of the European Union and Turkey in the Post-Cold War Era‟, Geopolitics, 9: 2 (2004), pp. 296Michelle Pace, „The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership and the Common Mediterranean Strategy?