«Yona Lunsky (University of Toronto) and Paul Bramston (University of Southern Queensland) Approximate word count: 4468 words Keywords: Intellectual ...»
This study has a number of limitations that must be taken into consideration when interpreting its results. First, it is difficult for informants to rate impact of stressful events on the life of a person with ID. While potentially stressful events can readily be rated by informants as occurring/not occurring in someone‟s life, expecting informants to detect how much stress each event induces is difficult. Thus, while the Lifestress-Inf extends our ability to quantify life-event stress in people with disability, there remain some good reasons to use of self-report if at all possible. A second important limitation of this study is its small sample size, with only a minority of individuals having moderate ID. If informant ratings of stress are to be adopted in the future for individuals with a broader range of disabilities, then we need to study informant ratings of more severely impaired individuals. It may be that some stressors from the Lifestress Inventory are less relevant to individuals with more severe disabilities, and that indices such as the Stress Survey Schedule (Groden et al., 2000) or the Life Events List (Owen et al., 2004) may be more appropriate.
In summary, the results of this study suggest that the Lifestress-Inf can be a useful supplement to the Lifestress Inventory (self-report). It seems that an informant nominated by the individual can make a reasonably good estimate of the occurrence of such events, and their perceptions of stress are related to their perceptions of interpersonal difficulties and depressed mood. However, our results suggest that there may be a tendency for informants to focus on skill deficits and lack of coping and self-report to focus on interpersonal difficulties. In addition, some caregivers offer more consistent reports to self reports than others. Clearly, there can be advantages in sourcing both perspectives when assessing stress. Future research should explore whether similar categories of stress are found for individuals with more severe disabilities, and how well caregivers can assess stress in such individuals.
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Author Note This project was funded by a postdoctoral fellowship from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, and a research grant from the Scottish Rite Foundation, awarded to the first author. No restrictions on access to or publication of data were imposed by these two granting agencies. The authors have no financial or non-financial conflicts of interest regarding this study.
1. Does s/he get to choose things that are important to him/her?
2. Does s/he get enough privacy and time to him or herself?
3. Has s/he heard people s/he knows arguing?
4. Do people treat him/her as though s/he is different?
5. Do people respect his/her rights?
6. Has someone s/he knows been seriously ill or died?
7. Has s/he been getting along with his/her partner/boyfriend/girlfriend?
8. Does s/he get along well with his/her family?
9. Do people listen to him/her when s/he has something to say?
10. Does s/he feel s/he can‟t do things properly or quick enough?
11. Can s/he understand other people‟s instructions or directions?
12. Can people understand him/her?
13. Does anybody bully or hurt him/her?
14. Do people interrupt him/her when s/he is busy?
15. Do people tease him/her or call him/her names?
16. Does s/he get on well with his/her supervisor or teacher?
17. Do people make him/her do things s/he doesn‟t really want to do?
18. Have s/he had any arguments or fights with anyone?
19. Can s/he do the things people want him/her to do?
20. Can s/he get enough help when s/he wants it or needs it?
21. Has s/he recently been in any really crowded places?
22. Has s/he ever been in a difficult situation where s/he didn‟t know what to do?
23. Do people around him/her let him/her know what‟s going on?
24. Will s/he always be able to have or find a job?
25. Does s/he feel confident handling money and counting change?
26. Does s/he like living where s/he lives at the moment?
27. Has s/he been in trouble lately?
28. Does s/he have enough friends?
29. Do people think s/he can‟t do things when s/he thinks s/he can?
30. Do people like talking to him/her?