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«By Yusuf Nur A thesis submitted to The University of Birmingham for the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY School of Geography, Earth and Environmental ...»

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LEAD, J. R. & WILKINSON, K. J. 2006. Aquatic Colloids and Nanoparticles: Current Knowledge and Future Trends. Environmental Chemistry, 3, 159-171.

LECOANET, H. F., BOTTERO, J.-Y. & WIESNER, M. R. 2004. Laboratory Assessment of the Mobility of Nanomaterials in Porous Media. Environmental Science &

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Colloids on Textile Fabrics. Textile Research Journal, 75, 551-556.

LEE, I., HAN, S. W. & KIM, K. 2001. Simultaneous preparation of SERS-active metal colloids and plates by laser ablation. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 32, 947-952.

LEE, S. W., LIANG, D., GAO, X. P. A. & SANKARAN, R. M. 2011. Direct Writing of Metal Nanoparticles by Localized Plasma Electrochemical Reduction of Metal Cations in Polymer Films. Advanced Functional Materials, 21, 2155-2161.

LEROUEIL, P. R., HONG, S., MECKE, A., BAKER, J. R., ORR, B. G. & BANASZAK HOLL, M. M. 2007. Nanoparticle Interaction with Biological Membranes: Does Nanotechnology Present a Janus Face? Accounts of Chemical Research, 40, 335-342.

LEWIS, J. A. 2000. Colloidal Processing of Ceramics. Journal of the American Ceramic

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LEWIS, L. N. 1993. Chemical catalysis by colloids and clusters. Chemical Reviews, 93, 2693-2730.

LI, H., DUAN, X., LIU, G., JIA, X. & LIU, X. 2008. Morphology controllable synthesis of TiO2 by a facile hydrothermal process. Materials Letters, 62, 4035-4037.

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2010a. Stability, Bioavailability, and Bacterial Toxicity of ZnO and Iron-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles in Aquatic Media. Environmental Science & Technology, 45, 755-761.

LI, W.-R., XIE, X.-B., SHI, Q.-S., ZENG, H.-Y., OU-YANG, Y.-S. & CHEN, Y.-B. 2010b.

Antibacterial activity and mechanism of silver nanoparticles on <i>Escherichia coli</i>. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 85, 1115-1122.

LI, X. & LENHART, J. J. 2012. Aggregation and Dissolution of Silver Nanoparticles in Natural Surface Water. Environmental Science & Technology, 46, 5378-5386.

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Nano-Silver Colloids. Environmental Science & Technology, 44, 2169-2175.

LIU, Y., ROSENFIELD, E., HU, M. & MI, B. 2013. Direct observation of bacterial deposition on and detachment from nanocomposite membranes embedded with silver nanoparticles. Water Research.

LIZ-MARZáN, L. M. 2005. Tailoring Surface Plasmons through the Morphology and Assembly of Metal Nanoparticles. Langmuir, 22, 32-41.

LOGOTHETIDIS, S., PATSALAS, P. & CHARITIDIS, C. 2003. Enhanced catalytic activity of nanostructured cerium oxide films. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 23, 803LOHRKE, J., BRIEL, A. & MÄDER, K. 2008. Characterization of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by asymmetrical flow-field-flow-fractionation. Nanomedicine, 3, 437-452.

LOVERN, S. B., STRICKLER, J. R. & KLAPER, R. 2007. Behavioral and Physiological Changes in Daphnia magna when Exposed to Nanoparticle Suspensions (Titanium Dioxide, Nano-C60, and C60HxC70Hx). Environmental Science & Technology, 41, 4465-4470.

LOWRY, G. V., GREGORY, K. B., APTE, S. C. & LEAD, J. R. 2012. Transformations of Nanomaterials in the Environment. Environmental Science & Technology, 46, 6893LU, Y., YIN, Y., MAYERS, B. T. & XIA, Y. 2002. Modifying the Surface Properties of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles through A Sol−Gel Approach. Nano

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NASLUND, H. R. & ZHONG, C.-J. 2005. Electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol:

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LYON, D. Y., ADAMS, L. K., FALKNER, J. C. & ALVAREZ, P. J. J. 2006. Antibacterial Activity of Fullerene Water Suspensions:  Effects of Preparation Method and Particle Size†. Environmental Science & Technology, 40, 4360-4366.

M.N, M. 2006. Do nanoparticles present ecotoxicological risks for the health of the aquatic environment? Environment International, 32, 967-976.


Preparation, Characterization, and Spectral Studies on Nanocrystalline Anatase TiO2.

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Structure and Stability of Silver Nanoparticles in Aqueous Solution Produced by Laser Ablation. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 104, 8333-8337.

MAKINO, T., CHIA, C. H., SEGAWA, Y., KAWASAKI, M., OHTOMO, A., TAMURA, K., MATSUMOTO, Y. & KOINUMA, H. 2002. High-throughput optical characterization for the development of a ZnO-based ultraviolet semiconductor-laser.

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MALVERN. 2012. Principle Behind Dynamic Light Scattering [Online]. Available:

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Respiratory chain inhibition by fullerene derivatives: Hydrogen peroxide production caused by fullerene derivatives and a respiratory chain system. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 11, 1433-1438.

MATSUMURA, Y., YOSHIKATA, K., KUNISAKI, S. & TSUCHIDO, T. 2003. Mode of bactericidal action of silver zeolite and its comparison with that of silver nitrate.

Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69, 4278-4281.

MCWHIRTER, M. J., MCQUILLAN, A. J. & BREMER, P. J. 2002. Influence of ionic strength and pH on the first 60 min of Pseudomonas aeruginosa attachment to ZnSe

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MESSAUD, F. A., SANDERSON, R. D., RUNYON, J. R., OTTE, T., PASCH, H. & WILLIAMS, S. K. R. 2009. An overview on field-flow fractionation techniques and their applications in the separation and characterization of polymers. Progress in Polymer Science, 34, 351-368.

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MEYER, J.-M. 2000. Pyoverdines: pigments, siderophores and potential taxonomic markers of fluorescent<SMALL> Pseudomonas</SMALL> species. Archives of Microbiology, 174, 135-142.

MEYER, J. M., GEOFFROY, V. A., BAIDA, N., GARDAN, L., IZARD, D., LEMANCEAU, P., ACHOUAK, W. & PALLERONI, N. J. 2002. Siderophore typing, a powerful tool for the identification of fluorescent and nonfluorescent pseudomonads. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68, 2745-2753.

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MIRKIN, C. A., LETSINGER, R. L., MUCIC, R. C. & STORHOFF, J. J. 1996. A DNAbased method for rationally assembling nanoparticles into macroscopic materials.

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2012. The complexity of nanoparticle dissolution and its importance in nanotoxicological studies. Science of The Total Environment, 438, 225-232.

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MOLDOVAN, M., KRUPP, E. M., HOLLIDAY, A. E. & DONARD, O. F. X. 2004. High resolution sector field ICP-MS and multicollector ICP-MS as tools for trace metal speciation in environmental studies: a review. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 19, 815-822.

MONROE, D. 2007. Looking for Chinks in the Armor of Bacterial Biofilms. PLoS Biol, 5,

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MORNET, S., VASSEUR, S., GRASSET, F. & DUGUET, E. 2004. Magnetic nanoparticle design for medical diagnosis and therapy. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 14, 2161MORONES, J. R., ELECHIGUERRA, J. L., CAMACHO, A., HOLT, K., KOURI, J. B., RAMIREZ, J. T. & YACAMAN, M. J. 2005a. The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles. Nanotechnology, 16, 2346-2353.

MORONES, J. R., ELECHIGUERRA, J. L., CAMACHO, A., HOLT, K., KOURI, J. B., RAMÍREZ, J. T. & YACAMAN, M. J. 2005b. The bactericidal effect of silver

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2006. Thermal decomposition as route for silver nanoparticles. Nanoscale Research

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NAVARRO, E., BAUN, A., BEHRA, R., HARTMANN, N., FILSER, J., MIAO, A.-J., QUIGG, A., SANTSCHI, P. & SIGG, L. 2008. Environmental behavior and ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to algae, plants, and fungi. Ecotoxicology, 17, 372-386.

NEAL, A. 2008. What can be inferred from bacterium–nanoparticle interactions about the potential consequences of environmental exposure to nanoparticles? Ecotoxicology, 17, 362-371.

NEL, A., XIA, T., MÄDLER, L. & LI, N. 2006. Toxic Potential of Materials at the Nanolevel. Science, 311, 622-627.


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NIEMEYER, C. M. 2001. Nanoparticles, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids: Biotechnology Meets Materials Science. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 40, 4128-4158.

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PANDEY, P. A., BELL, G. R., ROURKE, J. P., SANCHEZ, A. M., ELKIN, M. D., HICKEY, B. J. & WILSON, N. R. 2011. Physical Vapor Deposition of Metal Nanoparticles on Chemically Modified Graphene: Observations on Metal–Graphene Interactions. Small, 7, 3202-3210.


SCRIMIN 2003. Synthesis, characterization and properties of water-soluble gold nanoparticles with tunable core size. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2471 -2478.

PARIKH, S. J. & CHOROVER, J. 2006. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy Reveals Bond Formation During Bacterial Adhesion to Iron Oxide. Langmuir, 22, 8492-8500.

PELLETIER, D. A., SURESH, A. K., HOLTON, G. A., MCKEOWN, C. K., WANG, W., GU, B., MORTENSEN, N. P., ALLISON, D. P., JOY, D. C., ALLISON, M. R., BROWN, S. D., PHELPS, T. J. & DOKTYCZ, M. J. 2010. Effects of Engineered Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles on Bacterial Growth and Viability. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76, 7981-7989.

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