FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:     | 1 | 2 || 4 | 5 |   ...   | 12 |

«By Zachary Alexander Rosner A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology ...»

-- [ Page 3 ] --

The Value of the Generation Effect Memory researchers have now spent countless hours over more than 30 years studying the generation effect. Why devote so much time to studying a phenomenon that has been practiced since Socrates and preached by our parents? One answer is that students may not be quite convinced enough of the power of active learning to put principle into practice. While pupils might admit the value of active generation, a survey of the metacognitive learning 5 strategies of 177 college students found that in practice the vast majority of students simply reread textbooks or notes despite the limited benefit of this learning strategy (Karpicke, Butler, & Roediger III, 2009). Not only is the memory benefit of repeated study sessions far outweighed by active encoding strategies such as self-testing (Roediger III & Karpicke, 2006a), many students may not recognize instances in which they have insufficiently learned information if that information is explicitly provided, a problem that is eliminated when students test their own memories (Roediger III & Karpicke, 2006b). Thus, in addition to strengthening memories, active generation through self-testing provides an opportunity for students to understand when they sufficiently understand material.

Accruing evidence demonstrating the true power of the generation effect in the classroom could endorse the use of active learning strategies. Self-testing has been shown to greatly enhance learning in the classroom, and active generation is a major component of this effect. For example, after studying prose passages, students who took open or closed-book tests performed better than those who simply restudied the passages (Agarwal, Karpicke, Kang, Roediger III, & McDermott, 2008). Self-testing has even been shown to improve memory relative to commonly practiced mnemonic techniques such as elaborative encoding for material including scientific text (Karpicke & Blunt, 2011).

While the benefits of retrieval practice have been recently demonstrated with educational materials, key differences exist between active generation and retrieval practice that require consideration. The first difference is retrieval mode. In a direct comparison between the generation effect and self-testing, after studying words, some participants re-read the same words while others were shown fragments of those words along with instructions for one of two conditions. In the generate condition, participants were instructed to generate the first word that came to mind, while in the self-test condition participants were instructed to use the fragments as cues to recall the initially presented words. While generating words led to better memory than rereading words, self-testing was superior to both. Self-testing may be more a powerful mnemonic than generation, but its effect can only capitalize on previously learned information. Active generation, on the other hand, may be more practical during the initial encoding session. Indeed, studies have found that in education, generation enhances learning, and the errors students might make by generating incorrect information are not harmful if feedback is provided to correct those errors (Metcalfe & Kornell, 2007). Further, the benefits of generation can continue past the initial encoding phase, as students who generated words a second time showed a memory advantage over those who generated and then read words or simply read words twice (MacLeod, Pottruff, Forrin, & Masson, 2012). To be sure, in a meta-analysis of 17,771 subjects over 445 studies, active generation has been shown to yield an 8.8% advantage over passive learning (Bertsch et al., 2007).

Not only can active generation serve as a valuable tool in student learning, it can aid people with memory impairments. For example, while smaller than that seen in unimpaired populations, people with various causes of traumatic brain injury do show a positive generation effect (Lengenfelder et al., 2007). Additionally, patients exhibiting dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT) and frontal lobe type (FTD) both showed generation benefits for verbal and visuospatial short-term memory (Souliez et al., 1996).

These improvements extend to older people with milder memory impairments (Luo, Hendriks, & Craik, 2007). Studies suggest that older adults lack the self-initiated strategic encoding techniques often employed by younger adults. For example, when using shallow encoding tasks such as rhymes, older adults often fail to display the generation effect observed in 6 younger adults. This finding may be due to the fact that only young adults engage in postgeneration semantic processing, as the use of deeper semantic generation tasks rescues the generation effect in older adults. Several studies further illustrate this point that older adults lack self-initiated strategic encoding processes. For example, dividing attention during semantic encoding disrupts a generation effect in both younger and older adults (Taconnat & Isingrini, 2004). However, younger adults demonstrate a relatively greater generation effect for weakly than strongly associated word pairs (Taconnat, Froger, Sacher, & Isingrini, 2008) as compared to older adults, indicating greater semantic processing. Further, young adults allocate relatively more time to generation (Froger, Sacher, Gaudouen, Isingrini, & Taconnat, 2011), and the magnitude of the generation effect correlates with executive function abilities (Taconnat et al., 2006). Given the apparent value of the generation effect in everyone from students to younger adults to older adults to those with memory impairments, a fuller understanding of the positive and negative effects of generation, the underlying mechanisms of the generation effect, and the universality of this phenomenon is warranted.

Themes of this Dissertation

This dissertation is broken up into three themes investigating the positive and negative effects of generation, the universality of the generation effect, and its underlying neural mechanisms.

Further, these studies test various explanations of the generation effect, and a transferappropriate processing account is considered in detail.

Theme 1: The Positive and Negative Effects of Generation In what ways can actively generating information influence memory for item information, related item information, and contextual information? How resilient is the positive generation effect on item memory over long intervals of retention and in the face of divided attention?

Which aspects of context memory are negatively impacted by active generation? Are there instances in which active generation can impair memory for related items or even the items themselves?

Theme 2: The Universality of the Generation Effect How universal is the generation effect? Is it an effective encoding strategy among people from China who are accustomed to Confucian rather than Socratic learning styles? Further, how does the manner in which Chinese people process information (field-dependent rather than fieldindependent) influence the way that generation impacts memory for contextual information?

Theme 3: Mechanisms Underlying the Generation Effect What are the neural mechanisms that drive the generation effect? Are there specific regions within the brain that are more active when we actively generate rather than passively learn information? If so, do these brain activations drive the mnemonic benefit of active generation, and how can this information inform our understanding of why generation enhances memory?

7 Chapter 2: The Positive and Negative Effects of Generation Introduction As stated earlier, the mechanisms driving the generation effect are still not fully understood. Theories which attempt to account for positive generation effects on item memory have argued that active generation increases cognitive effort (McFarland Jr. et al., 1980; Tyler et al., 1979), conceptual processing (Jacoby, 1983), item distinctiveness (Begg et al., 1989; Hunt & McDaniel, 1993; Kinoshita, 1989), and semantic processing (McElroy, 1987; McElroy & Slamecka, 1982). Other theories posit that generation may enhance memory along multiple dimensions, including item-specific, cue-target (Hirshman & Bjork, 1988), and inter-target relational information (McDaniel et al., 1988). Still, there are instances in which the generation effect is reduced or absent, for example when manipulating the read and generate condition between subjects (Slamecka & Katsaiti, 1987), or when using nonwords as stimuli (McDaniel et al., 1988; Payne et al., 1986).

For all of the documented positive generation effects, negative effects have been found for contextual information such as the order (Nairne et al., 1991), color, and font of items (Mulligan, 2004; Mulligan et al., 2006), and the person who presented information (Jurica & Shimamura, 1999). To explain these negative generation effects, item-context tradeoff (Jurica & Shimamura, 1999) and transfer-appropriate processing accounts (Jacoby, 1983; Mulligan et al.,

2006) have been proposed. However, other researchers have found positive generation effects for item color and location, and proposed that active generation can enhance both item and context memory (Marsh, 2006; Marsh et al., 2001). As evidenced by these contradictory results, the effects of generation are sensitive to slight experimental manipulations, leaving various findings open to interpretation and multiple accounts plausible. This first series of studies sought to characterize the boundaries of the generation effect by addressing several issues. How resilient is the positive generation effect on item memory to decay over time and in the face of distraction?

Which aspects of context memory are negatively impacted by active generation? Are there instances in which active generation can impair memory for related item information or even the item itself?

Experiments 1.1A and 1.1B (Synonym Immediate Recognition; Synonym Delayed Recognition) The purpose of these two experiments was to test the resistance of the generation effect to decay over time. Active generation has proven beneficial after short periods of delay. Positive generation effects over longer retention intervals, as seen in self-testing experiments (Roediger III & Karpicke, 2006a), would demonstrate more value as an effective learning strategy. In these first experiments, participants read (e.g., STUDENT-PUPIL), or generated (e.g., STUDENTP_P_L) target synonyms and were tested either immediately or 24 hours later.

Materials and Methods Participants Seventy one UC Berkeley undergraduate students participated in these experiments.

Forty of the students participated in the Synonym Immediate Recognition experiment for 1 hour of research participation credit for partial fulfillment of a psychology course requirement. Fortyone of these students participated in the Synonym Delayed Recognition experiment for $12 for 1 hour.

Design and Materials Encoding stimuli consisted of 48 synonym word pairs. Half of the stimuli were presented in the read condition, meaning that synonym pairs were presented in complete form (e.g., STUDENT - PUPIL). The other half of the stimuli were presented in the generate condition, meaning that the vowels of the second word were removed (e.g., STUDENT – P_P_L).

Encoding strategy (generate vs. read) was manipulated within participants and counterbalanced such that each synonym pair appeared in each condition with equal frequency. Only synonym pairs in which participants were able to correctly generate the second word with at least 99 percent accuracy (demonstrated through prior experiments to pilot stimuli) were used. The distractor task consisted of a worksheet of 162 simple arithmetic problems, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The recognition portion of the experiment contained 96 randomly ordered items. Forty-eight of these items were old, consisting of the second, target word of each synonym pair from the encoding phase. The other 48 items were new, consisting of the second, target word of unused synonym pairs. Stimuli appeared as old and new with equal frequency over all participants.

Procedure Participants were seated facing a computer and told that they would see a series of synonym pairs, and while some pairs would be complete, the second word of other pairs would have the vowels removed. Regardless of condition, they were asked to say the second word of each pair aloud for the experimenter to record. This ensured that the correct word was generated, enabling the elimination of incorrectly identified words from future analyses. Participants were also told to remember the word for a later memory test. Before beginning the encoding phase, 2 practice encoding trials (1 read and 1 generate) were performed to ensure that participants sufficiently understood the task. Participants then viewed a series of 48 randomly ordered read and generate synonym pairs. Each trial began with a 2-second fixation inter-trial interval, followed by the presentation of a synonym pair for 3 seconds (see Figure 1.1A). Following the encoding portion of the experiment, participants performed the math distractor task. They were asked to answer as many of the problems as they could in 2 minutes. The purpose of the distractor task was to prevent the rehearsal of recently presented word pairs, and ensure that long-term memory would be tested.

Participants in the Synonym Immediate Recognition experiment performed the retrieval task immediately following the distractor task, while participants in the Synonym Delayed Recognition experiment performed the retrieval task 24 hours following the onset of the encoding session. Participants viewed a series of 96 randomly ordered words. Forty-eight of these words were old, consisting of the second, target word of each synonym pair from the encoding phase. The other 48 words were new, consisting of the second, target word of unused synonym pairs. Participants decided if each word was old or new with a confidence rating (1 = definitely old, 2 = probably old, 3 = probably new, 4 = definitely new. Words were presented one at a time, in black, in the center of the screen.

Results and Discussion

9 There was a positive generation effect for item memory in both experiments (Figure

Pages:     | 1 | 2 || 4 | 5 |   ...   | 12 |

Similar works:

«Journal of Research in Personality 40 (2006) 472–481 www.elsevier.com/locate/jrp Informant reports: A cheap, fast, and easy method for personality assessment Simine Vazire * Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA Available online 21 November 2005 Abstract Despite widespread agreement that multi-method assessments are optimal in personality research, the literature is dominated by a single method: self-reports. This pattern seems to be based, at...»

«37? /Vg U /V 0, 3 * 7 9 8 IMAGERY, PSYCHOTHERAPY, AND DIRECTED RELAXATION: PHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES DISSERTATION Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of North Texas in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY By Jeffrey T. Baldridge, B.A., M.A. Denton, Texas May, 1992 37? /Vg U /V 0, 3 * 7 9 8 IMAGERY, PSYCHOTHERAPY, AND DIRECTED RELAXATION: PHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES DISSERTATION Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of North...»

«100 YEARS I'm 15 for a moment Caught in between 10 and 20 And I'm just dreaming Counting the ways to where you are I'm 22 for a moment She feels better than ever And we're on fire Making our way back from Mars 15 there's still time for you Time to buy and time to lose 15, there's never a wish better than this When you only got 100 years to live I'm 33 for a moment Still the man, but you see I'm a they A kid on the way A family on my mind I'm 45 for a moment The sea is high And I'm heading into...»

«PSYCHOLOGY HONOURS THESIS HANDBOOK Introduction Third and fourth year students majoring in psychology at York often ask for additional information about the Honours Thesis. The purpose of this handbook is to provide some of this information along with some useful advice about completing your thesis work. It is a good source of information, but it is not the only available source of information. If you have a question or a problem that pertains to your thesis work, you may consult a number of...»

«What Indoor Cats Need To enrich the lives of indoor cats, we have developed this resource checklist; and some suggestions for making changes. Informed Owners As an owner, one of the most important things you can do for you cat is to educate yourself about feline idiosyncrasies. These resources will help you do just that. Books From the Cat's Point of View answers nearly every question the new cat owner could have and gives the experienced cat owner a look at life from the other side of the...»

«CHAPTER 1 Qualitative Research and Habits of Mind Story is far older than the art of science and psychology and will always be the elder in the equation no matter how much time passes. —Clarissa Pinkola Estes Women Who Run With the Wolves (1996) B ecause the researcher is the research instrument in qualitative research projects, it is important for the researcher to practice and refine techniques and habits of mind for qualitative research. Habits of mind in this text will include observation...»

«ELYSIUM BOOKS Shortlist 12 ACUN A DE FIGUEROA, Francisco ( attributed). Nomenclatura y apología del carajo. Para la circulaclón [sic] privada. Mon1. tevideo (1922). 14pp. An amusing priapic poem employing numerous synonyms for the word “penis” allegedly written by the nineteenth century Uruguayan poet. $100. AGUIRRE, Luis M. La Lujuria Humana (Estudio Médico-Social). Barcelona: La Vida Literaria (1903?). 95pp. 2. One of a series of pseudo-scientific publications on salacious sexual...»

«Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework for the sharing of influenza viruses and access to vaccines and other benefits (PIP Framework) Questions and Answers September 2011 Contents: Page I. General 3 II. Advisory Group 4 III. Global Influenza Surveillance & Response System (GISRS) 6 IV. Pandemic Influenza Benefit Sharing 7 V. Partnership Contribution 7 VI. Standard Material Transfer Agreements 8 VII. Intellectual Property Rights 9 VIII. Influenza Virus Traceability Mechanism (IVTM) 10 This...»

«Ch. Charan Singh University Meerut Information Brochure 2016-17 for Admission to Regular (CBCS) & Self–Financed Courses of the University Campus 1 Message from the Vice–Chancellor India, the oldest civilisation and the oldest nation of the world, inherits a rich tradition of intellectual exploration. The Rigveda prayer :' आ नो भद्रा क्रतवो यन्तु ववश्वतः' (Let the noble ideas come to us from the entire world.) underlines the openness in...»

«ODYSSEY OFTHE MIND SPONTANEOUS PROBLEM SOLVING SPONTANEOUS PROBLEMS Verbal Hands -On Hands -On Verbal VERBAL In a Verbal spontaneous problem, the team is given a brainstorming-type problem to solve in a specific amount of time and scored according to he number and creativity of responses generated. The order in which members respond is usually random, and a higher point value is awarded for a creative answer than a common one. Examples: Name uses for a jack-o-lantern after Halloween. Name...»

«Your Benefit Guide State Vision Plan For Active Employees and Retirees Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan is a nonprofit corporation and independent licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. Welcome Welcome to your State Vision Plan, administered by Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan (BCBSM) under the direction of the Michigan Civil Service Commission (MCSC). The MCSC is responsible for implementing your vision benefits and future changes in benefits. BCBSM will provide certain...»

«Some Ways that Maps and Diagrams Communicate Barbara Tversky Department of Psychology, Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305-2130 bt@psych.stanford.edu Abstract. Since ancient times, people have devised cognitive artifacts to extend memory and ease information processing. Among them are graphics, which use elements and the spatial relations among them to represent worlds that are actually or metaphorically spatial. Maps schematize the real world in that they are two-dimensional, they omit...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.