FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 2 | 3 || 5 |

«Vladimir milkov УДК 2-335 + 27-144.89 + 94(470)“13” seRgiy RaDoNezHsky. RussiaN patH to soliDaRity The article analyzes the ideological and ...»

-- [ Page 4 ] --

Perceptions of unity and harmony at the sacral level were carried over to all other levels of existence. In ‘Life’ the concept of the sacred was interpreted in a social context. The idea of the Trinity, appearing in the monastic environment in Sergiy’s circle, transformed into the idea of harmony in Russian life, a symbol of marshalling national forces in a plan to build a unified Rus, free of internal conflicts. The Church, erected in Trinity Monastery, and other Trinity Churches that followed, took on the value of visual symbols, reminding laypeople that the concord on earth should be built upon the unity of the Trinity. The sacred symbols encouraged the public consciousness to overcome social conflicts and divisions. The monastery, created by Sergiy, turned into a ‘unifying center’ for the Russian world, and the newly introduced cult of the Trinity became the ideology for this unity [Георгиевский, с. 14–15; Клибанов, с. 93].

Researchers have long discussed the impact of Sergiy Radonezhsky on Andrei Rublev’s work, primarily, upon the creation of the main masterpiece of the master from Early Medieval Russia. A typical statement on the subject states: “Rublev was revealing that very Trinity, which St. Sergiy has been teaching about. It was the God of unity and harmony. As the supreme and the sacred endorsement of unity and self-determination of the people, this ideal was proclaimed by St. Sergiy and received an unparalleled artistic and philosophical embodiment in the creation of Andrei Rublev; it indubitably belongs to the history of Russian social thought and culture” [Клибанов, с. 102]. The greatest Russian icon painter used to live among Sergiy’s 70 Problema voluminis followers; as such the mindset that presided over the convent, founded by the reverend, even after his death, was reflected in Rublev’s ‘Trinity’ [Клибанов, с. 101].9 The clearest and most insightful description of Rublev’s ‘Trinity’ belongs to Pavel Florensky: “Among the powerful circumstances of the time, among the feuds, the international discord, the universal savagery and Tatar raids, amid this deep peacelessness that corrupted Rus, Rublev opened a spiritual glance into an infinite, unflappable, indestructible peace, ‘the upper world’. Enmity and hatred that prevailed in the lower world, was opposed to mutual love, flowing in eternal harmony, in eternal silent conversation, in the eternal unity of the upper worlds” [Флоренский, с. 19].

Rublev’s icon inspired the thought that celestial unity can be a blueprint for earthly unity, and that the world’s feuds can be overcome with kindness, humanity and solidarity based on love. He gave, in fact, an answer to the question of how one should live, and this, in turn, signified how the country should exist.

Andrey Rublev, along with Epiphanius the Wise, can be shown to be ideally and spiritually close to Sergiy Radonezhsky. Because of those great representatives of the Russian culture, we can evaluate the program for rebuilding society, which was implemented by the Trinity abbot.

The vibrant and honest image of Sergiy in ‘Life’ by Epiphanius helped facilitate the acceptance of Sergiy by his contemporaries and successors as a model of Russian sanctity [Алексий (Кутепов), с. 183–193; Топоров, с. 558–559, 573]. Epiphanius succeeded in showing that the sanctity of Sergiy did not manifest in austerity, but in an active civic consciousness, expressed through his multiple good deeds towards others.

The spiritual father for the Russian land initiated the cult that sanctified the unity of the country and called for ceasing feuds. Epiphanius the Wise verbalized the principles, which Sergiy followed in his nation-unifying activities. The same ideals were ingeniously embodied by Andrey Rublev in his famous ‘Trinity’. The abbot, the writer, and the icon painter stand in the same row of supporters for nation rebuilding. All of them were monks from the same convent, and all of them were the servants of the Trinity and the promoters of the consolidation of the nation on principles of love, equality, and mutual assistance. They can indeed be named as a trinity within the creation and formulation of a national idea. Sergiy Radonezhsky takes an undisputed leading place in this group. He was a pioneer who roused the Russian spirit by marshalling the warriors for the Battle of Kulikovo and gave the people strength to overcome the difficulties of centralization.

The ‘Tale of the Saint Icon Painters” (the end of the 16th – the beginning of the 17th 9 centuries) directly links the new iconic version of the Trinity to the covenants of St. Sergiy. It is said in ‘Tale’ that the image of the Holy Trinity was created by Andrey Rublev ‘as a praise to his Godfather St. Sergiy the Thaumaturge’ [Сергий (Спасский), с. 11]. It is mentioned in the same work that the icon painter was a novitiate at the Trinity abbot, Nikon. This leads to the conclusion that Andrey was a monk at this monastery for quite some time [Кузьмина, с. 110–111, 120–121].

71 V. Milkov. Sergiy Radonezhsky. Russian Path to Solidarity The works of Alexius and Sergiy had a decisive result, the victory at the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380. Sergiy was hardly the first face of Church hierarchy, but his actions demonstrate that he had tremendous influence during those dangerous years in the country’s history. The popularity of Sergiy in the eyes of his contemporaries and successors can be explained by the fact that the ideas, which he implemented by his social activities, answered the painful questions of Russian society.

Sergiy acted on the historical stage in an epoch of state, spiritual, and cultural revival of Russia and became one of the central figures of the time of change, which was decisive for the country. Without exaggeration, he can be called the spiritual leader of the Russian world, which was amassing forces to do battle against the Tatar “yoke”.

The success of Christianization and the consolidation of the nation at the end of the 14th century were driven by monastic colonization, which was caused by the exportation of Russian monkhood beyond city walls and into remote territories. Gradually, a new image of society was formed as it prepared to do battle against its overlords. Sergiy’s contribution to this process is clear. He was a rare type of Early Medieval leader who fascinated his contemporaries with the dream of harmonizing the earthly world, and his actions followed the principles he proclaimed.


Агапкина Т. А. Троица // Славянские древности. Т. 5. М. : Международные отношения, 2012. С. 320–325.

Алексий (Кутепов), архим. Преподобный Сергий как идеал русской святости // Богословские труды. Вып. 29. М. : Изд-во Московской патриархии, 1989. С. 183–193.

Борисов Н. С. Эпоха преподобного Сергия // Родина. 2014. № 5. С. 4–8.

Виноградова Л. Н. Мифологический аспект полесской русальской традиции // Славянский и балканский фольклор: Духовная культура Полесья на общеславянском фоне / отв. ред. Н. И. Толстой. М. : Наука, 1986. С. 88–133.

Георгиевский Г. П. Завет преподобного Сергия. М. : Издание Общества любителей духовного просвещения, 1893. 17 с.

Громов М. Н., Мильков В. В. Идейные течения древнерусской мысли. СПб. : Издво РХГУ, 2001. 960 с.

Данилевский И. Н. Как Сергий Радонежский стал героем Куликовской битвы // Родина. 2014. № 5. С. 11–15.

Духанина А. Житие и почитание Сергия Радонежского // Родина. 2014. № 5.

С. 69–71.

Житие Сергия Радонежского // Памятники литературы Древней Руси. XIV – середина XV века. М. : Художественная литература, 1981. С. 256–429.

Зубов В. П. Епифаний Премудрый и Пахомий Серб (К вопросу о редакциях «Жития Сергия Радонежского») // ТОДРЛ. Т. 9 / отв. ред. В. П. Адрианова-Перетц. М.; Л. :

Изд-во АН СССР, 1953. С. 145–158.

Клибанов А. И. К характеристике мировоззрения Андрея Рублева // Андрей Рублев и его эпоха / под ред. М. В. Алпатова. М. : Искусство, 1971. С. 62–102.

Клосс Б. М. Избранные труды. Т. 1: Житие Сергия Радонежского. М. : Языки русской культуры, 2001. 568 с.

Кузьмин А. Г. Митрополит Алексий // Великие духовные пастыри России / под ред. А. Ф. Киселева. М. : Владос, 1999. С. 156–182.

Кузьмина В. Д. Древнерусские письменные источники об Андрее Рублеве // Андрей Рублев и его эпоха / под ред. М. В. Алпатова. М. : Искусство, 1971. С. 103–124.

Кучкин В. А. «Не зело близ града Ростова» // Родина. 2014. № 5. С. 29–32.

Кучкин В. А. О роли Сергия Радонежского в подготовке Куликовской битвы // Вопросы научного атеизма. Вып. № 37. М. : Мысль, 1988. С. 100–116.

72 Problema voluminis Кучкин В. А. Сергий Радонежский // Вопросы истории. 1992. № 10. С. 75–92.

Кучкин В. А. Сказание о смерти митрополита Петра // Труды отдела древнерусской литературы. Т. 18 / отв. ред. Я. С. Лурье. М.; Л. : Изд-во АН СССР, 1962. С. 59–79.

Мильков В. В. Концепт «земля» и Русская земля в представлениях домонгольской эпохи // Ориентиры… Вып. 8 / отв. ред. Т. Б. Любимова. М. : Институт философии РАН, 2013. С. 124–151.

Муравьев А. Н. Русская Фиваида на Севере. СПб. : Типография III отделения, 1855. 504 c.

Петров А. Е. Сергий Радонежский // Великие духовные пастыри России / под ред.

А. Ф. Киселева. М. : Владос, 1999. С. 183–220.

Плигузов А. И., Хорошкевич А. Л. Отношение русской церкви к антиордынской борьбе в XIII–XV веках (по материалам Краткого собрания ханских ярлыков русским митрополитам) // Вопросы научного атеизма. Вып. № 37. М. : Мысль, 1988.

С. 117–130.

ПСРЛ – Полное собрание русских летописей. Т. 15. Вып. 1. М. : Наука, 1965.

132 с.

Прохоров Г. М. Повесть о Митяе / отв. ред. Д. С. Лихачев. Л. : Наука. Ленинградское отделение, 1978. 238 с.

СIЛ – Софийская первая летопись старшего извода // ПСРЛ. Т. 6. Вып. 1. М. :

Языки русской культуры, 2000.

Сергий (Спасский), архиеп. Историческое описание Московского Спасо-Андроникова монастыря. М. : Университетская типография (Катков и К), 1865. 140 с.

Сказания и повести о Куликовской битве / изд. подготовили Л. А. Дмитриев, О. П. Лихачева. Л. : Наука. Ленинградское отдел., 1982. 422 с.

Смолич И. К. Русское монашество. М. : Православная энциклопедия, 1999.

Соколов Р. А. Русская Церковь в XIII – начале XV в. // Дворниченко А. Ю., Кривошеев Ю. В., Соколов Р. А., Шапошник В. В. Русское православие: от крещения до начала патриаршества. СПб. : ИФ СПбГУ, 2012.

Соколова В. К. Весенне-летние календарные обряды русских, украинцев и белорусов. М., 1979.

Топоров В. Н. Святость и святые в русской духовной культуре. Т. II: Три века христианства на Руси (XII–XIV вв.). М. : Языки русской культуры, 1998.

Федотов Г.П. Святые Древней Руси. М. : Московский рабочий, 1990.

Флоренский П. А. Троице-Сергиева лавра и Россия // Троице-Сергиева лавра.

Сергиев посад : ТСЛ, 1919.

Шибаев М. А. Авторский вариант жития Сергия Радонежского // ТОДРЛ. Т. 58.

СПб., 2007. С. 290–319.


Agapkina, T. A. (2012). Troicza [Trinity]. In Slavyanskie drevnosti. (Vol. 5, pp. 320– 325). Moscow: Mezhdunarodny′e otnosheniya.

Aleksij (Kutepov), archim. (1989). Prepodobny′j Sergij kak ideal svyatosti [St. Serge as an ideal of holiness]. In Bogoslovskie trudy′. (Iss. 29, pp. 183–193). Moscow: Izd-vo Moskovskoj patriarhii.

Borisov, N. S. (2014). E′poha prepodobnogo Sergiya [The epoch of St. Serge]. Rodina, 5, 4–8.

Danilevskij, I. N. (2014). Kak Sergij Radonezhskij stal geroem Kulikovskoj bitvy′ [About how Sergius of Radonezh became the hero of the Battle of Kulikovo]. Rodina, 5, 11–15.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 2 | 3 || 5 |

Similar works:

«FIXING STUDENTS’ FIXED MINDSETS: PAVING THE WAY FOR MEANINGFUL ASSESSMENT Carrie Sperling and Susan Shapcott* I. INTRODUCTION Picture a first-semester legal writing classroom. Students receive their first important graded assignment in law school. They anxiously flip through the pages of their office memo and see more markings on their papers than they have ever seen on anything they have written in the past. Their professor commented on their organization, their analysis, their use of...»

«Once Upon a Time in Africa Stories of Wisdom and Joy Compiled by Joseph G. Healey Founded in 1970, Orbis Books endeavors to publish works that enlighten the mind, nourish the spirit, and challenge the conscience. The publishing arm of the Maryknoll Fathers and Brothers, Orbis seeks to explore the global dimensions of the Christian faith and mission, to invite dialogue with diverse cultures and religious traditions, and to serve the cause of reconciliation and peace. The books published reflect...»


«Bandolero Buyers Guide A Guide to Bando Basics and Inspection The Cars The Bando has been carefully designed with safety in mind. They are built by 600 Racing in Harrisburg NC. Racing is sanctioned by INEX. More information on INEX and 600 Racing can be found at www.600racing.com. Some areas of the car are designed to “crush” and absorb energy in an impact. This “crush” also makes the cars somewhat fragile. Be prepared to repair/replace body panels, bumpers, frame horns and occasionally...»

«The Generation Effect and Memory By Zachary Alexander Rosner A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology in the Graduate Division of the University of California, Berkeley Committee in charge: Professor Arthur P. Shimamura, Chair Professor William J. Jagust Professor Matthew P. Walker Fall 2012 The Generation Effect and Memory Copyright 2012 by Zachary Alexander Rosner Abstract The Generation Effect and Memory by...»

«“ The Smiddy ”, Isle of Lismore Near Oban, Scotland PA34 5UL || An idyllic holiday cottage & retreat space – long weekends, short breaks, holidays, or longer rentals Welcome to The Smiddy a very pretty, detached stone cottage in a beautiful island setting, just 5 minutes from the pristine shores of Balnagowan Loch. Beautifully renovated & simply furnished, with thoughtful home touches & essential comforts in mind, this warm & cosy cottage offers a wonderful hideaway on one of the West...»

«Diffusion: the UCLan Journal of Undergraduate Research Volume 4 Issue 2 (December 2011) The role of religion in social transformation within Poland since1970 Paul Ryder (Religion, Culture and Society) The political and social structure of the state At the close of the Second World War in 1945, Poland was consumed by the totalitarian, communist regime of Joseph Stalin’s Soviet Union. The ideology of Stalinism was heavily based on the work of Karl Marx and what later became known as Marxism....»

«INTRODUCTION My first introduction to Fessenden was sometime in the 1950’s whilst collecting gulls eggs near the Inneans. I remember asking “what were the gigantic concrete structures near the Gauldrans. The answer was either “they were something to do with the war” or “something to do with the nearby airfield.” This answer seemed to satisfy me at that time. Next meeting was in the late 1980’s whilst sitting in a dentist’s surgery in Wick I picked up the Scots Magazine and there...»

«THE SIGNIFIER POINTING AT THE MOON THE SIGNIFIER POINTING AT THE MOON Psychoanalysis and Zen Buddhism Raul Moncayo Masao Abe, Zen and Western Thought, 1999, University of Hawaii Press, reproduced with permission of Palgrave Macmillan. Ekaku Hakuin (1685–1788). Daruma, 18th century. Hanging scroll, ink on paper © 2012 Museum Associates/LACMA. Licensed by Art Resource, NY. First published in 2012 by Karnac Books Ltd 118 Finchley Road London NW3 5HT Copyright © 2012 by Raul Moncayo The right...»

«1 FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND PSYCHOLOGY M.Ed. Syllabus 2014 Department of Education (CASE) Faculty of Education and Psychology The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda Vadodara. 1 2 OFFICERS OF THE UNIVERSITY Visitor HON’BLE GOVERNOR OF GUJARAT Chancellor Dr. (Mrs.) MRUNALINIDEVI PUAR Vice-Chancellor Prof. Yogendra Singh Pro-Vice-Chancellor I/c Registrar Dr. Amit Dholakia Dean Prof. R.G. Kothari I/c Head Department of Education (CASE) Prof. S.C. Panigrahi I/c Head Department of Educational...»

«Some Ways that Maps and Diagrams Communicate Barbara Tversky Department of Psychology, Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305-2130 bt@psych.stanford.edu Abstract. Since ancient times, people have devised cognitive artifacts to extend memory and ease information processing. Among them are graphics, which use elements and the spatial relations among them to represent worlds that are actually or metaphorically spatial. Maps schematize the real world in that they are two-dimensional, they omit...»

«ODYSSEY OFTHE MIND SPONTANEOUS PROBLEM SOLVING SPONTANEOUS PROBLEMS Verbal Hands -On Hands -On Verbal VERBAL In a Verbal spontaneous problem, the team is given a brainstorming-type problem to solve in a specific amount of time and scored according to he number and creativity of responses generated. The order in which members respond is usually random, and a higher point value is awarded for a creative answer than a common one. Examples: Name uses for a jack-o-lantern after Halloween. Name...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.